Boto3 Remove Recursive

py files that contain the text boto3 (in other words, we are looking for projects using the library boto3 ). JMESPath Tutorial¶ This is a tutorial of the JMESPath language. 11⋅135+1⋅134+0⋅133+1⋅132+0⋅131+1⋅130 which reduces modulo 2 to ≡1⋅15+1⋅14+0⋅13+1⋅12+0⋅11+1⋅10(mod2) ≡1+1+0+1+0+1(mod2). Python string method replace() returns a copy of the string in which the occurrences of old have been replaced with new, optionally restricting the number of replacements to max. After they code, our engineers highlight best practices for interviewing at Google. It is much more efficient than the recursive function because, since the recursive call is the last statement, there is nothing to be saved in the stack for the current function call. A running program is called a process. Участники проекта. 12241 agiliad-technologies-pvt-dot-ltd-dot Active Jobs : Check Out latest agiliad-technologies-pvt-dot-ltd-dot job openings for freshers and experienced. Showing 1 changed file with 167 additions and 0 deletions. 5+numpy ☝ index from 0 (here from 0 to 4) frozenset immutable set Priority (…) ☝ decimalusual order of operations modules math, statistics, random,, fractions numpy etc. Doing this manually can be a bit tedious, specially if there are many files to upload located in different folders. The negative index is used to remove any new-line spaces from the string and allow the string to except the last character that is given as S[:-1]. If you have time, explanation would be welcome :) thanks! \$\endgroup\$ - supafly Aug 7 '18 at 15:34. #Format # # is the package name; # is the number of people who installed this package; # is the number of people who use this package regularly; # is the number of people who installed, but don't use this package # regularly; # is the number of people who upgraded this package recently; #. co allows videos @ 6 seconds. 9 lang =17 3. Syntax Following is the syntax for replace() method −. Subclassing IMeta is OPTIONAL and rarely necessary; it is primarily available for users writing generic code over a class of models, eg. Available with a choice of Ubuntu, Linux Mint or Zorin OS pre-installed with many more distributions supported. By default, we cannot remove buckets that contain objects through the serverless framework. Learn Python online: Python tutorials for developers of all skill levels, Python books and courses, Python news, code examples, articles, and more. If False, uses the key/secret given, or boto’s credential resolver (environment variables, config files, EC2 IAM server, in that order). *part or storage. YAML is a data serialization format designed for human readability and interaction with scripting languages. +* Keep hosts in play vars if inside of a rescue task (https://github. Boto3 is the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Software Development Kit (SDK) for Python, which allows Python developers to write software that makes use of services like Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2. find command to search keyword in files recursively in linux Find command is one of the system command which is useful to search files and directory. To avoid such kind of mistake it is good to have interaction of question before removing any file/directory. If there is single element, return it. parse import urlsplit try: from ConfigParser. ) typically this will delete files and not folders, but this is not guaranteed, it is possible to create files without an extension and folder names that do contain a period:. handlerの実行. This option lets you specify that an attempt to remove a directory will also try to remove the entire contents, if set to yes. 0ad-data: real time strategy,rts 0ad: real time strategy,rts 3D-Fasteroids: 3D,asteroid,space,galaxy,game,destroy,asteroids 3proxy: proxy 4th: forth language 4th. The details of your aws-cli configuration can be found in ~/. As the application grows, pieces can then be moved to…. The boto3 library is required to use S3 targets. Clicking on an UI with your mouse, is a non-repeatable, non-automated and non-scalable way to perform a specific task. - Recursion is used for other types of problems whose solutions are inherently recursive, because they need to keep track of prior state. adapter should be a function taking a single argument (the object to adapt) and returning an object conforming to the ISQLQuote protocol (e. /0verkill-0. walk(local_directory): for filename in files: # construct the full local path: local_path = os. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Signup Login Login. #35877: guix pull extremely verbose (with no ----verbose). Automatically generates a Pipfile, if one doesn't exist. 3, migrated to boto3 to enable new features. mock is a library for testing in Python. Mocking boto3 S3 клиентский метод Python. Note The AWS CLI comes pre-installed on the Amazon Linux AMI. Using aws cli commands The syntax for using the aws cli is as follows:. object_versions. To install Raspbian software on a Raspberry Pi. If the execution time of the lambda surpass a threshold, it will quit the loop, update the number of retries and launch the function again if it didn’t run out of chances. Sirirat Kongdee is a Sr. Session taken from open source projects. This allows AWS profile names to be set up so that RAthena can connect to different accounts from the same machine, without needing hard code any credentials. A qualifier to this is that when encrypting a file, if a directory is provided as the destination, rather than creating the source filename in the destination directory, a suffix is appended to the destination filename. The AWS Lambda function in the diagram reads the messages, append additional data to them, and compress them with gzip before sending to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose. docker attach dev To list see the pids, type top. Implementation of Simple Storage Service support. In this RUN command, we install build dependencies, use them to build the app’s packages, and subsequently remove them using apk del. parse import urlsplit try: from ConfigParser. In this example, a small company wants to use Cloud Storage as a storage system for their employees. Участники проекта. Feedback collected from preview users as well as long-time Boto users has been our guidepost along the development process, and we are excited to bring this new stable version to our Python customers. Gc is written in Go with a recursive descent parser and uses a custom loader, also written in Go but based on the Plan 9 loader, to generate ELF/Mach-O/PE binaries. the link between the recursion and !f(power of two) <==> evil number. When checking if a file exists, often it is performed right before accessing (reading and/or writing) a file. This option lets you specify that an attempt to remove a directory will also try to remove the entire contents, if set to yes. list_tags (Resource = self_arn # get it from handler context) def invalidate_cache (keys): return lambda_client. Let me spend a few moments explaining what each part has to. Implementation of Simple Storage Service support. Set the permissions recursive in the path. Introduction Streams are a somewhat advanced concept to understand. #35877: guix pull extremely verbose (with no ----verbose). JSON is an acronym standing for JavaScript Object Notation. Before proceeding with building your model with SageMaker, you will need to provide the dataset files as an Amazon S3 object. Available with a choice of Ubuntu, Linux Mint or Zorin OS pre-installed with many more distributions supported. Although the service can work both as Authoritative DNS and Recursive DNS, it is not recommended to use it a Recursive DNS, as it will not be fully compliant to the DNS standard; The DNS records defined by the system under the services domain are internal resources and should not be modified or deleted. ACLs … Continue reading Configure HDFS ACLs. When passed with the parameter --recursive, the following cp command recursively copies all files under a specified directory to a specified bucket and prefix while excluding some files by using an --exclude parameter. They asked me to add support for destroying the VM, too. One of this folders is ETLWork folders. Can anyone share any doc useful to delete directory using python or Scala for Glue. bufsize specifies the blocksize and defaults to 20 * 512 bytes. 5", "items. The AWS Lambda function in the diagram reads the messages, append additional data to them, and compress them with gzip before sending to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose. tag_resource (Resource = self_arn, # get it from handler context Tags = json. python3-pip installed but pip3 command not found? Ask Question Asked 5 years, 3 months ago. Amazon Route 53 currently charges $0. CircleCI build tasks. 1 /bin/bash To find the stats of the dev container: This is an important command. To query a table in a DynamoDB database, we use the query() method. You are not allowed to dnf remove it, since dnf depends on it. It is much more efficient than the recursive function because, since the recursive call is the last statement, there is nothing to be saved in the stack for the current function call. We can pass the configuration as "UserData" string to our EC2 instance using the boto3 client. I'm using s3fs and fastparquet to write parquet files to s3. This means they are listed in the AWS Systems Manager console with an ID that is prefixed with "mi-". If you are not yet comfortable with the AWS. /13-Jun-2019 14:54 - 1oom-1. bufsize specifies the blocksize and defaults to 20 * 512 bytes. pyc' -delete Problem: In a directory containing multiple projects, we want to find all setup. No folder handling required. tag_resource (Resource = self_arn, # get it from handler context Tags = json. Recursively copying local files to S3. Directories may lack modification times. Line 7-9 we're using this new client to invoke a Lambda function using the environment variable "LAMBDA_NAME" as the name of the function to invoke. of every files but it doesn't remove previous ones nor check if the file changed in between. Hi All, We use boto3 libraries to connect to S3 and do actions on bucket for objects to upload, download, copy, delete. Recursive Calls Do NOT recursively call a function which allocates variables with static storage duration , as this behaviour is undefined. (bsc#967251) - Allow spaces in principal names. /18-Oct-2019 08:42 - 1oom-1. Feedstocks on conda-forge. The documentation provides details of working with this method and the supported queries. Star Labs; Star Labs - Laptops built for Linux. Replace String In Filenames Or Dirnames With Another String Recursively - 24 April 2018; Remove A File From Git Repository But Not Filesystem Boto3 - 01 March. File Iterator - Iterate over a list of pattern matched objects in an FTP, SFTP, HDFS or Windows Fileshare. "Enthought probed to find the pivot point that improved our process. Maybe my son's uncle's auntie's friend can help you. In frontend/package. In particular, PyYAML can parse all examples from the. client import Config # Initialize a session using DigitalOcean Spaces supports a limited set of access controls for buckets and objects. Source code: unittest. You can get the value of a single byte by using an index like an array, but the values can not be modified. You can find the latest, most up to date, documentation at Read the Docs , including a list of services that are supported. Version 3 of the AWS SDK for Python, also known as Boto3, is now stable and generally available. Available with a choice of Ubuntu, Linux Mint or Zorin OS pre-installed with many more distributions supported. txt and test2. 動機とやったことの概要 AWS Step FunctionとLambdaでディープラーニングの訓練を全自動化する from mizugokoro スポットインスタンスで学習をして、無駄なくインスタンスを止めたい Step Functionsへの入力を変えるだけで様々な条件での学習を実行させたい 機械学習のコード自体にこ…. 50/month per hosted zone for your first 25 domains, and $0. Note: If you're looking to get. Free online heuristic URL scanning and malware detection. def delete_recursive (bucketname, incorporating pagination requirements of boto3. You can mount S3 as a file system to make getting to your bucket easier. To allow ec2-user to manage files in the default root directory for your Apache web server, you need to modify the ownership and permissions of the /var/www directory. Line 7-9 we're using this new client to invoke a Lambda function using the environment variable "LAMBDA_NAME" as the name of the function to invoke. This document is licensed by Red Hat under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage your AWS services. S3Target is a subclass of the Target class to support S3 file system operations. Learnbay provides best Python Training in Bangalore with practicals and hands on project experience for freshers and working professional. - Iterative approach is used as the stack space available to a thread is often much less than the space available in the heap, and recursive algorithms tend to require more stack space than iterative algorithms. We would like to remove the boto dependency from all modules. Note: You must use boto3, not the s3 sync command. academic/STAR: Updated for version 2. (bsc#967251) - Allow spaces in principal names. Represents a Table object in the Boto3 DynamoDB API. Installation is easily performed via pip. path import warnings from multiprocessing. key) However, the equivalent code using boto2 does seem to work the way I expect:. Regular Recursive Function for Factorial in Python:. pool import ThreadPool try: from urlparse import urlsplit except ImportError: from urllib. ID: 22948: Package Name: openshift-ansible: Version: 3. (bsc#784551) Patch Instructions: To install this SUSE Recommended Update use YaST online_update. The documentation provides details of working with this method and the supported queries. def read_block (self, fn, offset, length, delimiter = None, ** kwargs): """ Read a block of bytes from an S3 file Starting at ``offset`` of the file, read ``length`` bytes. Recursive CTEs are really good at working with hierarchical data such as org charts for bill of materials. The recursive algorithm for counting leaf nodes was pretty easy, so is the iterative algorithm as well. This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON floats (e. Session(profile_name:'myprofile') and it will use the credentials you created for the profile. 39] External tables supports, default environment, new data load components Read the full release notes on the Matillion ETL for Amazon Redshift Support Site. all files in the. 0, modules were written in either boto3 or boto. If the type is used in an action you need but the payloads of use to you don't actually have the recursion, remove the recursive reference in the type declaration. 07 Repeat steps no. Pass the information for a choice to the next recursive call(s). pip is able to uninstall most installed packages. 12241 agiliad-technologies-pvt-dot-ltd-dot Active Jobs : Check Out latest agiliad-technologies-pvt-dot-ltd-dot job openings for freshers and experienced. $ find my_library/modules -name '*. Deep work: Scientists, fluent in AI/machine learning, applying a new generation of workflows. Automating a Twitter Bot with AWS Lambda I’ve always been a fan of The Simpsons and have been following @simpscreens on Twitter for a while, an account that tweets a random frame of the show every 30 minutes. Takes a list of acl names and remove them from the given path. { "description": "Auto-Generated JSON Schema for Ansible-stable 2. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. 6 KiB: 2019-Oct-04 14:54. An S3 bucket that allows full control access to authenticated users will give any AWS account or IAM user the ability to LIST (READ) objects, UPLOAD/DELETE (WRITE) objects, VIEW (READ_ACP) objects permissions and EDIT (WRITE_ACP) permissions for the objects within the bucket. $ find my_library/modules -name '*. tgz 28-Oct. Python Training Course Description. Note: You must use boto3, not the s3 sync command. An S3 bucket that allows full control access to authenticated users will give any AWS account or IAM user the ability to LIST (READ) objects, UPLOAD/DELETE (WRITE) objects, VIEW (READ_ACP) objects permissions and EDIT (WRITE_ACP) permissions for the objects within the bucket. While it’s designed to alleviate the undifferentiated heavy lifting from the full life cycle of ML models, Amazon SageMaker’s capabilities can also be used independently of one another; that is, models trained in Amazon SageMaker […]. Introduction. There is a command called update-config. The reason for this is most customers need some enrichment to the data before arriving to Amazon S3. While it leverages a Python C extension for low level cryptography (Cryptography), Paramiko itself is a pure Python interface around SSH networking concepts. 例えばファイルを削除したい場合、shプラグインを選べばrmが、powershell プラグインを選べばRemove-Itemが得られる。 5. A blog to help me remember what in the hell i've done and what not to do again. find command to search keyword in files recursively in linux Find command is one of the system command which is useful to search files and directory. js file in either folder, we should go ahead and remove them. Automating a Twitter Bot with AWS Lambda I've always been a fan of The Simpsons and have been following @simpscreens on Twitter for a while, an account that tweets a random frame of the show every 30 minutes. that is much simpler than using stat. On the openstack CLI, normally you would pass in the --recursive option to delete the container and all its contents. Hence the tail recursion is very light on the memory utilization. A tar archive is a sequence of blocks. Version 3 of the AWS SDK for Python, also known as Boto3, is now stable and generally available. In this tutorial, you add a group namedwww to your EC2 instance, and then you give that group ownership of the /var/www directory and add write permissions for the group. Sat, 14 Sep 2019 04:59:07 GMT academic/Gridcoin-Research: Updated for version 4. By default, this is equivalent to float(num_str). Learn how to create objects, upload them to S3, download their contents, and change their attributes directly from your script, all while avoiding common pitfalls. For smaller workloads, serverless platforms such as AWS Lambda can be a fast and low-cost option for deploying machine learning models. 4ti2 7za _go_select _libarchive_static_for_cph. No folder handling required. Store an object in S3 using the name of the Key object as the key in S3 and the contents of the file pointed to by ‘fp’ as the contents. No activate scripts. What's New in s4cmd 2. Bucket(' edsu-test-bucket ') for o in bucket. Whether to use anonymous connection (public buckets only). A blog for programmers. com/profile/09185831379316275732 [email protected] Pythonでファイル・ディレクトリを削除するos. The boto3 library is required to use S3 targets. lambda_cient = boto3. i tried this but its only a. You will not get full credit if you just write a wrapper on top of the sync command. Whether to use anonymous connection (public buckets only). Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. A blog to help me remember what in the hell i've done and what not to do again. of every files but it doesn't remove previous ones nor check if the file changed in between. So how do you grant select on SYS objects? AWS have the RDSADMIN account with some useful packages and I have used one of the procedures in RDSADMIN_UTIL to do the job. Regular Recursive Function for Factorial in Python:. If you are not yet comfortable with the AWS. For managing users manually, use the buildbot usercommand, which allows you to add, remove, update, and show various attributes of users in the Buildbot database (see Command-line Tool). AWS libraries for other languages (e. You can mount S3 as a file system to make getting to your bucket easier. Examples: rmdir-recursive=no rmdir-recursive=yes. They asked me to add support for destroying the VM, too. If your bucket does not have versioning enabled, you can use the rm (remove) AWS CLI command with the --recursive parameter to empty a bucket (or remove a subset of objects with a specific key name prefix). 39] External tables supports, default environment, new data load components Read the full release notes on the Matillion ETL for Amazon Redshift Support Site. /29-Oct-2019 09:01 - 0ad-0. Often -- especially for extension types written in C -- the output of help is un-help-ful. botocore by boto - The low-level, core functionality of boto 3. Source code: unittest. If ``delimiter`` is set then we ensure that the read starts and stops at delimiter boundaries that follow the locations ``offset`` and ``offset + length``. pyc' -delete Problem: In a directory containing multiple projects, we want to find all setup. mock is a library for testing in Python. Line 6 we are declaring a new boto3 client for Lambda. When we run the code, the will output be: local x: 10 global x: 5. We developed a charm that deployed a VM into a MaaS server. An "environment" in Python is the context in which a Python program runs. Ansible and Python 3¶. 10/month for additional hosted zones, even if they are not getting any DNS requests. In 2014, I created a series of blog posts that have discussed using CoreOS on Eucalyptus cloud infrastructures. I must admit that it is only partly because I'm busy trying to finish my PhD in my spare time. We can pass the configuration as “UserData” string to our EC2 instance using the boto3 client. el7: Epoch: Summary: Openshift and Atomic Enterprise Ansible: Description. Note: This typedef changes depending on. If we were to run client. 30: Release: 1. Learn how to package your Python code for PyPI. sh to update wp-config. This tutorial introduces you to VS Code as a. wonder if can done browsers. HOWDY! :) Over the years, Python has evolved considerably and become one of the fastest-growing programming languages in the world creating an explosion in demand for participants fluent in Python. 例えばファイルを削除したい場合、shプラグインを選べばrmが、powershell プラグインを選べばRemove-Itemが得られる。 5. IMeta [source] ¶. OK, I Understand. There are several S3 compatible FUSE plugins: RioFS. qMake it and explore recursively. As we know if you hit the command rm along with switch -fr ,it will remove the files and directory recursively. Mocking boto3 S3 клиентский метод Python. list_absent (name, acl_type, acl_names=None, recurse=False) ¶ Ensure a Linux ACL list does not exist. So e-mails could transit through Tox nodes. Remove all keys from cache. The following are code examples for showing how to use fnmatch. Background: We store in access of 80 million files in a single S3 bucket. Welcome back! In part 1 I provided an overview of options for copying or moving S3 objects between AWS accounts. What's New in s4cmd 2. The json library in python can parse JSON from strings or files. mock is a library for testing in Python. Although your answer may be correct, the downvote is because the question explicitly says "Using boto3". They asked me to add support for destroying the VM, too. We can pass the configuration as “UserData” string to our EC2 instance using the boto3 client. また、boto3を活用したS3の操作方法についても確認します。 AWS CLIを利用したS3の操作方法を確認します。 オブジェクト一覧表示、バケットの作成、ローカルファイルのアップロードなど取り上げます。. com/profile/09185831379316275732 [email protected] Boto3, the next version of Boto, is now stable and recommended for general use. py install, which leave behind no metadata to determine what files were installed. File Name ↓ File Size ↓ Date ↓ ; Parent directory/--1oom-1. /18-Oct-2019 08:42 - 1oom-1. docker stats dev To connect to the container. 04 (Xenial Xerus) execute on terminal: sudo apt-get remove python-boto3 Uninstall python-boto3 and it's dependent packages. aws/credentials (on linux and mac-os). #35881: guix import hackage: option -r and -s interact poorly Package: guix; Reported by: Robert Vollmert ; 161 days old. (Again it may be a result of other tuneups I did. You'll be able to use this script to quickly copy files and directories into S3. $ find my_library/modules -name '*. 4 binaries that are downloaded from python. As of version 2. This morning I have decided that this is the time. We can check which version is currently on Lambda from this page , under Python Runtimes : if boto3 has been updated to a version >= 1. The new manager also lets you know the status of a kernel, for example, if it is unsupported, superseded, or supported, and how long for. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Represents a Table object in the Boto3 DynamoDB API. 6 KiB: 2019-Oct-04 14:54. ACLs … Continue reading Configure HDFS ACLs. revert : boolean revert the property to the received value if one exists; otherwise operate as if the -S option was not specified. Problem: All files with extension pyc must be removed from the directory my_library/modules, recursively. Version 3 of the AWS SDK for Python, also known as Boto3, is now stable and generally available. With Python there are several methods which can be used to check if a file exists, in a certain directory. When you hit the command rm -fr it will not ask any question and it will remove the file or folder. If you want to copy files from S3 to the Lambda environment, you'd need to recursively traverse the bucket, create directories, and download files. Note: If you're looking to get. pyc' -delete Problem: In a directory containing multiple projects, we want to find all setup. – RedGrittyBrick Apr 24 '12 at 19:46. Recommend:python - Boto - Uploading file to a specific location on Amazon S3. Although relying on the Amazon S3 Python SDK, a search of the source code for regex keywords such as multi. 4ti2 7za _go_select _libarchive_static_for_cph. "sid" İçindeki Yazılım Paketleri, Altbölüm python 2to3 python-boto3 (1. Click Create delivery stream. Store an object in S3 using the name of the Key object as the key in S3 and the contents of the file pointed to by 'fp' as the contents. ; Support S3 --API-ServerSideEncryption along with 36 new API pass-through options. Recursive SQL in UDB/LUW (you can use 'recursive' and 'SQL' in the same sentence) A growing number of database queries lend themselves to recursive solutions. Well, for longer answer if you insists to use boto3. json go ahead and remove line 5. Find out what’s new in the latest releases of Matillion ETL for Amazon Redshift. The Python Package Index (PyPI) is a repository of software for the Python programming language. Description ¶. env files, if they exist. Maybe my son's uncle's auntie's friend can help you. These details can be edited manually from there. com/ansible/ansible/pull/31710). Get Region name here. Before proceeding with building your model with SageMaker, you will need to provide the dataset files as an Amazon S3 object. Learn about installing packages. Automatically adds/removes packages to a Pipfile when they are un/installed. This is a sample script for uploading multiple files to S3 keeping the original folder structure. You can mount S3 as a file system to make getting to your bucket easier. (bsc#967251) - Allow spaces in principal names. Deep work: Scientists, fluent in AI/machine learning, applying a new generation of workflows. With just one tool to download and configure, you can control multiple AWS services from the command line and automate them through scripts. First get an updated package list by entering the following command in to terminal if this has not been done today sudo apt update. In the case of Python, calling a function that may raise an exception is no more difficult or unsafe than calling a function that returns a status flag and a result, but writing the function itself is much easier, with fewer places for the programmer to make a mistake. list_absent (name, acl_type, acl_names=None, recurse=False) ¶ Ensure a Linux ACL list does not exist. So in this article, we will go along with some examples for a better understanding and introduce you to a few concepts along the way. How to format in JSON or XML. 普段 aws cli を使うことはそんなにないんですが、s3 コマンドだけはよく使うのでまとめました。といっても全てではなく、ファイルやディレクトリ操作に関する部分です。. If console_script entrypoints are in setup. Line 1-2 we're importing the boto3 and os libraries. Hello I have bucket with several folders. If you need a more recent version of the AWS CLI than what is available in the Amazon updates repository, uninstall the package (sudo yum remove aws-cli) and then install. Getting Started Objects Importing Modules Executing Shell Commands Scalar Data Types Strings Duck Typing Tuples Lists Ranges Slicing Sets Dictionaries Counters Dictionaries with Default Values Hashable Objects List Comprehensions Set Comprehensions Dictionary Comprehensions Nested Comprehensions Control Flow The Empty Statement Functions - Part I Functions - Part II Functions - Part III. A blog to help me remember what in the hell i've done and what not to do again. Pythonを使用してbashスクリプトを呼び出す場合、S3バケットのフォルダーからローカルフォルダー(Linuxマシン内)にファイルをロードする簡単な方法を次に示します。. json go ahead and remove line 5. You can change the JMESPath expressions and see the results update automatically. In the case of Python, calling a function that may raise an exception is no more difficult or unsafe than calling a function that returns a status flag and a result, but writing the function itself is much easier, with fewer places for the programmer to make a mistake. Note: If you're looking to get. by Scott Davidson (Last modified: 06 Apr 2019).